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Scientific Bibliography : Monarch Ecology


Symbioses (Diseases, Parasites, Predators, Mimicry Complexes)

Alonso-Mejia, A., Brower, L. P. 1994. From model to mimic: age-dependent unpalatability in monarch butterflies. Experientia (Basel) 50:176-181 [Keywords: cardiac glycosides, predation, defense, aging, mimicry]

Arnott, H. J., Smith, K. M., Fullilove, S. L. 1968. Ultrastructure of a cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus affecting the monarch butterfly,. Danaus plexippus. 1. Development of the virus and nomal polyhedra in the larva. Journal of Ultrastructure and Molecular Structure Research 24:479-507

Berenbaum, M. R. 1995. Aposematism and mimicry in caterpillars. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 49:386-396 [Keywords: mimicry, life stages, larval mimicry complexes]

Boppre, M. 1978. Chemical communication, plant relationships and mimicry in the evolution of Danaid butteflies. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 24:64-77

Bowers, M. D. 1983. Mimicry in North American checkerspot butterflies: Euphydryas phaeton and Chlosyne harrisii (Nymphalidae). Ecological Entomology 8:1-8

Brower, J. V. Z. 1958. Experimental studies of mimicry in some North American butterflies. Part 1. The monarch, Danaus plexippus, and the viceroy, Limenitis archippus archippus. Evolution 12:32-47

Brower, J. V. Z. 1958. Experimental studies of mimicry in some North American butterflies. Part 3. Danaus berenice and Limenitis archippus floridensis. Evolution 12:273-285

Brower, J. V. Z. 1963. Experimental studies and new evidence on the evolution of mimicry in butterflies. Proceedings of the International Congress of Zoology (Washington) 4:156-161

Brower, L. P. 1968. Automimicry, an extension of mimicry theory. American Zoologist 8:475

Brower, L. P. 1970. Plant poisons in a terrestrial food chain and implications for mimicry theory. In Chambers, K. L., Biochemical Evolution: 69-82. Corvallis, Orgegon. Proceedings of the 29th Annual Biological Colloquium, 1968.

Brower, L. P., Brower, J. V. Z., Stiles, F. G., Croze, H. J., Hower, A. S. 1964. Mimicry:differential advantage of colour patterns in the natural environment. Science (Washington) 144:183-185

Brower, L. P., Calvert, W. H. 1985. Foraging dynamics of bird predators on overwintering monarch butterflies in Mexico. Evolution 39:852-868 [Keywords: overwintering, predation, Mexico]

Brower, L. P., Fink, L. S., Van Zandt Brower, A., Leong, K., Oberhauser, K., et al. 1995. Roundtable: On the dangers of interpopulational transfers of monarch butterflies. Bioscience (Washington) 45:540-544 [Keywords: population transfer, east and west populations, disease risk]

Brower, L. P., Horner, B. E., Marty, M. A., Moffit, C. M., B., V. R. 1985. Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, P. spicilegus, and Microtus mexicanus) as predators of overwintering monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in Mexico. Biotropica (Lawrence) 17:89-99

Brower, L. P., Nelson, C. J., Seiber, J. N., Fink, L. S., Bond, C. 1988. Exaptation as an alternative to coevolution in the cardenolide-based chemical defense of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) against avian predators. In Chemical mediation of coevolution , ed. K. C. Spencer. pp. 447-475. New York: Academic Press [Keywords: chemical defense, cardiac glycoside, birds, predation, physiology]

Brower, L. P., Pough, F. H., Meck, H. R. 1970. Theoretical investigations of automimicry. I. Single trial learning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 66:1059-1066

Calvert, W. H. 1996. Fire ant predation on monarch larvae (Nymphalidae: Danainae) in a central Texas prairie. J. Lep. Soc. 50:149-151

Calvert, W. H. 1994. Behavioral response of monarch butterflies (Nymphalidae) to disturbances in their habitat: a startle response? Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 48:157-165 [Keywords: behavior, overwintering, predation, Mexico]

Calvert, W. H., Hedrick, L. E., Brower, L. P. 1979. Mortality of the Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.): avian prediation at five overwintering sites in Mexico. Science (Washington) 204:847-851

Cohen, J. A. 1985. Differences and similarities in cardenolide content of queen and monarch butterflies in Florida and their ecological and evolutionary implications. Journal of Chemical Ecology 11:85-103 [Keywords: chemical defense, mimicry, cardenolide fingerprint, cardiac glycosides]

Cott, H. B. 1940. Adaptive coloration in animals 508 pp. London.

Dempster, J. P. 1984. The natural enemies of butterflies. In 97-104, Syjposia of the Royal Entomological Society of London No. 11.

Dias, M. M. 1978. Parasitismo de Danaus plexippus erippus (Lepidoptera, Danaidae) por "Masicera" brasiliensis (Diptera, Tachinidae) e descricao da larva e pupario do parasita. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 22:5-9

Drummond, B. A. 1976. Comparative ecology of mimetic relationships of Ithomiine butterflies in eastern Ecuador. Ph.D. thesis, Ann Arbor, MI: Univ. of Mich.

Dudley, R., Adler, G. H. 1996. Biogeography of milkweed butterflies (Nymphalidae, Danainae) and mimetic patterns on tropical Pacific archipelagos. Journal of the Linnean Society 57:317-326

Edmunds, M. 1968. Natural selection in mimetic butterflies at Legon. Ghana J. Sci., Accra 8:16

Edmunds, M. 1976. Larval mortality and population regulation in the butterfly Danaus chrysippus in Ghana. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (London) 58:129-145

Etchegaray, J. B., Nishida, T. 1975. Reproductive activity, seasonal abundance and parasitism of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) in Hawaii. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 22:33-39 [Keywords: behavior, reproduction, abundance, parasitism]

Faffa, K. F. 1977. Some parasites of lepidopterous larvae recently collected in Delaware. Entomological News 88:81-84

Fink, L. S. 1980. Bird predation on overwintering monarch butterflies. Honors thesis. Amherst, MA. Amherst College

Fink, L. S., Brower, L. P., Waide, R. B., & Spitzer, P. R. 1983. Overwintering monarch butterflies as food for insectivorous birds in Mexico. Biotropica (Lawrence) 15:151-153

Fink, L. S., Brower, L. P. 1981. Birds can overcome the cardenolide defence of Monarch butterflies in Mexico. Nature (London) 291:67-70 [Keywords: defense, cardenolides, bird predation, Mexico]

Glendinning, J. I. 1989. Comparative responses of five sympatric species of mice to overwintering colonies of monarch butterflies. University of Florida

Glendinning, J. I. 1990. Responses of three mouse species to deterrent chemicals in the monarch butterfly. II. Taste tests using intact monarchs. Chemoecology (Stuttgart) 1:124-

Glendinning, J. I., Alonso, A., Brower, L. P. 1988. Behavioral and ecological interaction of foraging mice (Peromyscus melanotis) with overwintering monarch butterflies (Danaus pl.exippus) in Mexico. Oecologia (Heidelberg) 75:222-227 [Keywords: ecology, behavior, vertebrate predators, overwintering, chemical defense]

Glendinning, J. I., Brower, L. P. 1990. Feeding and breeding responses of five mice species to overwintering aggregations of the monarch butterfly. Journal of Animal Ecology 59:1091-1112 [Keywords: ecology, overwintering, physiology, chemical defense, vertebrate predator]

Glendinning, J. I., Brower, L. P., Montgomery, C. A. 1990. Responses of three mouse species to deterrent chemicals in the monarch butterfly. I. Tast and toxicity tests using artificial diets laced with digitoxin or monocrotaline. Chemoecology (Stuttgart) 1:114-123

Grimshaw, P. 1983. Test releases of Heliconius melpomene, carried out to discover if it is feasible to house this species in conjunction with a large collection of tropical birds. Newsletter Exotic Entomol. Group and Amateur Entomol. Soc. 1983:9-12

Huheey, J. E. 1984. Warning coloration and mimicry. In Chemical ecology of insects, eds. W. J. Bell and R. T. Carde, 257-297. London and New York: Chapman and Hall, 524 pp.

Jeffords, M. R., Sternburg, J. G., Waldbauer, G. P. 1979. Batesian mimicry: field demonstration of the survival value of pipevine swallowtail and monarch colour patterns. Evolution 33:275-286

Jones, F. M. 1932. Insect coloration and the relative acceptability of insects to birds. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 80:345-386

Jones, F. M. 1934. Further experiments on coloration and relative acceptability of insects to birds. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 82:443-453

Kingsley, V. V. 1972. Persistence of intestinal bacteria in the developmental stages of the Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 20:51-58

Leeuw, I. 1978. Two observations of predation on Lepidoptera. Great Lakes Entomologist (East Lansing) 11:262

Leong, K. L. H., Kaya, H. K., Yoshimura, M. A. 1992. The occurrence and effect of a protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (Neogregarinida: Ophryocystidae) on overwintering monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) from two California winter sites. Ecological entomology 17:338-342 [Keywords: pathogen, protozoan parasite]

Leong, K. L. H., Yoshimura, M. A., Williams, H. 1997. Instar susceptibility of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) to the negregarine parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 69:79

Lorito, M., Peterbauer, C., Hayes, C. K., Harman, G. E. 1994. Synergistic interaction between fungal cell wall degrading enzymes and different antifungal compounds enhances inhibition of spore germination. Microbiology (New York) 140:623-629 [Keywords: parasites, Botrytis cinerea, antifungals, monarch culture maintenance]

Malcolm, S. B. 1990. Mimicry: Status of a classical evolutionary paradigm. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5:57-62 [Keywords: chemical defense, mimicry]

Mathur, S., Mathur, R. B. 1979. Sturmia convergens Wied (Tachinidae- Diptera) an endo larval-pupal parasitoid of Danais chrysippus. Indian Journal of Entomology (New Delhi) 40:353 [not seen]

Mayer, A. G. 1897. On the color and color-patterns of moths and butterflies. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 30:169-256, 10 pls.

McIsaac, H. P. 1991. The capture and release of a monarch butterfly (Nymphalidae: Danainae) by a barn swallow. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 45:62-63 [Keywords: chemical defense, vertebrate predator, anecdotal]

McLaughlin, R. E., Myers, J. E. 1970. Ophryocystis elektroscirrha sp. n., a neogregarine pathogen of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.), and the Florida Queen butterfly, D. gilippus berenice (Cramer). Journal of Protozoology 17:300-305 [Keywords: parasite, external infection]

Moulton, J. C. 1909. On some of the principal mimetic (Mullerian) combinations of tropical American butterflies. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1908:585-606, pls. 30-34

Owen, D. F. 1970. Mimetic polymorphism and the palatability spectrum. Oikos 21:333-336

Papageorgis, C. 1975. Mimicry in neotropical butterflies. American Scientist 63:522-532

Pasteur, G. 1982. A classificatory review of mimicry systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13:169-199

Petersen, B. 1964. Monarch butterflies are eaten by birds. J. Lepid. Soc., Cambridge, Mass. 18:165-169

Platt, A. P. 1975. Monomorphic mimicry in Nearctic Limenitis butterflies: experimental hybridization of the L. arthemisastynax complex with L. archippus. Evolution 29:120-141

Platt, A. P., Coppinger, R. P., Brower, L. P. 1969. Demonstration of the mimetic advantage of edible butterflies presented to caged avian predators. Amer. Zool., Utica, N. Y. 9:1062

Platt, A. P., Coppinger, R. P., Brower, L. P. 1971. Demonstration of the selective advantage of mimetic Limenitis butterflies presented to caged avian predators. Evolution 25:692-701

Poulton, E. B. 1909. Mimetic North American species of the genus Limenitis (s.l.) and their models. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1908:447-488, 1 pl.

Poulton, E. B. 1916. The hereditary transmission of small variations and the origin of butterfly mimicry. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond., Lond. 128:21-52

Riley, C. V. 1871. Two of our common butterflies. Their natural history; with some general remarks on transformation and protective imitation as illustrated by them. Report on Noxious, Beneficial, and other Insects, of the State of Missouri, Jefferson City. 3:142-175

Ritland, D. B. 1991. Ecological dynamics of viceroy butterfly (Limenitis archippus) mimicry in Florida. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Ritland, D. B. 1991. Palatability of aposematic queen butterflies (Danaus gilippus) feeding on Sarcostemma clausum (Asclepiadaceae) in Florida. Journal of Chemical Ecology 17:1593-1610 [Keywords: ecology, chemical defense, mimicry, cardenolides, cardiac glycosides, Florida]

Ritland, D. B. 1991. Revising a classic butterfly mimicry scenario: Demonstration of Mullerian mimicry between Florida viceroys (Limenitis archippus floridensis) and queen (Danaus gilippus berenice). Evolution 45:918-934 [Keywords: chemical defense, mimicry]

Ritland, D. B. In press a. Unpalatability of viceroy butterflies (Limenitis archippus) and their purported mimicry models, Florida queens (Danaus gilippus).

Ritland, D. B., Brower, L. P. 1991. The viceroy butterfly is not a batesian mimic. Nature (London) 350:497-498 [Keywords: chemical defense, mimicry]

Rothschild, M. 1972. Some observations on the relationship between plants, toxic insects and birds. Ann. Proc. Phytochem. Soc. 8:1-12

Rothschild, M. 1979. Mimicry, butterflies and plants. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalinses (Uppsala) 22:82-99

Rothschild, M., Kellet, D. N. 1972. Reactions of various predators to insects storing heart poisons (cardiac glycosides) in their tissues. Journal of Entomology A 46:103-110

Sakai, W. H. 1994. Avian predation on monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Nymphalidae: Danainae), at a California overwintering site. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 48:148-156 [Keywords: overwintering, bird predation, tagging, California]

Shapiro, A. M. 1977. Avian predatin on butterflies - again. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation 89:293-295

Shapiro, A. M. 1981. The pierid red-egg syndrome. American Naturalist 117:276-294

Sheppard, P. M. 1959. The evolution of mimicry; a problem in ecology and genetics. Cold Sping Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 24:131-140

Sheppard, P. M. 1965. The Monarch butterfly and mimicry. J. Lepid. Soc., Cambridge, Mass. 19:227-230

Smith, D. A. S. 1978. Cardiac glycosides in Danaus chrysippus (L.) provide some protection against insect parasitoids. Experientia (Basel) 34

Smith, D. A. S. 1979. The significance of beak marks on the wings of an aposematic, distasteful and polymorphic butterfly. Nature (London) 281:215-216

Smithers, C. N. 1973. A note on the natural enemies of Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Australia. Australian Entomological Magazine 1:37-40

Stimson, J., Berman, M. 1990. Predator induced colour polymorphism in Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Hawaii. Heredity (Oxford) 65:401-406 [Keywords: ecology, predation, vertebrate predator, Hawaii]

Thompson, W. R. 1945. Parasites of the Lepidoptera (CI-F). Catalogue of the parasites and predators of insect pests, Ontario Sec. 1:131-258

Treat, A. E. 1975. Mites of moths and butterflies. Frontispiece, Ithaca & Lond. :362

Turner, J. R. G. 1984. Mimicry: The palatability spectrum and its consequences. Symposia of the Royal Entomological Society of London 11:141-161

Urquhart, F. A. 1957. A discussion of Batesian mimicry as applied to the Monarch and Viceroy butterflies [iv] + 27 pp., frontispiece. Toronto.

Urquhart, F. A. 1966. Virus-caused epizootic as a factor in population fluctuations of the Monarch butterfly. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 8:492-495

Vane-Wright, R. I. 1976. A unified classification of mimetic resemblances. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (London) 8:25-56

Vane-Wright, R. I. 1980. On the definition of mimicry. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (London) 13:1-6

Vane-Wright, R. I. 1981. Mimicry and its unknown ecological consequences. In The evolving biosphere , ed. P. L. Forey. pp. 157-168. London & Cambridge: Chance, change & challenge 2

Vasconcellos-Neto, J., Lewinsohn, T. M. 1984. Discrimination and release of unpalatable butterflies by Nephila clavipes, a neotropicl orb-weaving spider. Ecological Entomology 9:337-344

Waldauer, G. P. 1988. Asynchrony between Batesian mimics and their models. American Naturalist 131 Supplement:S103-S121 [Keywords: mimicry, phenology, chemical defense]

White, D. S. 1989. Monarch butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) as prey for the dragonfly, Hagenius brevistylus (Odonata: Gomphidae). Entomological news, and proceedings of the Entom 100:129-

Wickler, W. 1968. Mimicry in plants and animals London:. 255 pp.

Zalucki, M. P. 1981. Temporal and spatial variation of parasitism in Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Australian Entomological Magazine 8:3-8

Zalucki, M. P., Freebairn, C. 1982. An additional parasitoid for Danaus plexippus L. Bull. Ent. Soc. Queensland 10:68

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