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Scientific Bibliography : Monarch Ecology

Population Structure and Characteristics

Ackery, P. R. 1987. Diversity and phantom competition in African acraeine butterflies. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (London) 30:291-297

Beall, G. 1941. The Monarch butterfly, Danaus archippus Fab. I. General observations in southern Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist (Ottowa) 55:123-129

Beall, G. 1946. Seasonal variation in sex proportion and wing length in the migrant butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lep. Danaidae). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 97:337-353

Beall, G., Williams, C. B. 1945. Geographical variation in the wing length of Danaus plexippus (Lep. Rhopalocera). Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London 20:65-76

Blakley, N. R., Dingle, H. 1978. Competition: butterflies eliminate milkweed bugs from a Caribbean Island. Oecologia (Heidelberg) 37:133-136

Boggs, C. L. 1981. Selection pressures affecting male nutrient investment at mating in heliconiine butterflies. Evolution 35:931-940

Boppre, M. 1978. Chemical communication, plant relationships and mimicry in the evolution of Danaid butteflies. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 24:64-77

Brower, A. V. Z., Boyce, T. M. 1991. Mitochondrial DNA variation in monarch butterflies. Evolution 45:1281-1286 [Keywords: genetics, genetic differentiation, intraspecific phylogeny, population structure]

Brower, L. P. 1962. Further evidence for interspecific competition in natural populations of the monarch and queen butterflies, Danaus plexippus and D. gilippus berenice in south central Florida. Ecology 43:549-552

Brower, L. P., Fink, L. S., Van Zandt Brower, A., Leong, K., Oberhauser, K., et al. 1995. Roundtable: On the dangers of interpopulational transfers of monarch butterflies. Bioscience (Washington) 45:540-544 [Keywords: population transfer, east and west populations, disease risk]

Bull, C. M., Zalucki, M. P., Suzuki, Y., Mackay, D. A., Kitching, R. L. 1985. An experimental investigation of resource use by female monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus (L.). Australian Journal of Ecology (Carlton) 10:391-398

Byers, J. R. 1978. Biosystematics of the genus Euxoa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). X. Incidence and level of multiple mating in natural and laboratory populations. Canadian Entomologist 110:193-200

Calvert, W. H. 1994. Behavioral response of monarch butterflies (Nymphalidae) to disturbances in their habitat: a startle response? Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 48:157-165 [Keywords: behavior, overwintering, predation, Mexico]

Calvert, W. H., Lawton, R. O. 1993. Comparative phenology of variation in size, weight, and water content of eastern North American monarch butterflies at five overwintering sites in Mexico. In Biology and Conservation of the Monarch Butterfly , ed. S. B. Malcolm, M. P. Zalucki. pp. 299-307. Science Series. Vol. 38. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County [Keywords: behavior, overwintering, Mexico]

Calvert, W. H., Mendoza V, N. P., Lawton, R. O. 1986. Relationship between mortality and habitat structure at several Mexican monarch butterfly overwintering colonies. Field report to Monarca, A. C., and the World Wildlife Fund.

Dudley, R., Adler, G. H. 1996. Biogeography of milkweed butterflies (Nymphalidae, Danainae) and mimetic patterns on tropical Pacific archipelagos. Journal of the Linnean Society 57:317-326

Eanes, W. F. 1978. Morphological variance and enzyme heterozygosity in the monarch butterfly. Nature (London) 276:263-264 [Keywords: genetics, heterozygosity, morphology]

Eanes, W. F., Koehn, R. K. 1978. An analysis of genetic structure in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. Evolution 32:784-797 [Keywords: genetic structure, population structure, mating patterns]

Edmunds, M. 1968. Natural selection in mimetic butterflies at Legon. Ghana J. Sci., Accra 8:16

Edmunds, M. 1976. Larval mortality and population regulation in the butterfly Danaus chrysippus in Ghana. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (London) 58:129-145

Eisner, T., Meinwald, J. 1987. Alkaloid-derived pheromones and sexual selection in Lepidoptera. In Pheromone biochemistry , ed. G. D. Prestwich, G. J. Blomquist. pp. 251-269. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press

Etchegaray, J. B., Nishida, T. 1975. Reproductive activity, seasonal abundance and parasitism of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) in Hawaii. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 22:33-39 [Keywords: behavior, reproduction, abundance, parasitism]

Fadem, C. M., Shapiro, A. M. 1979. Notes on winter roosting by monarchs (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) at an inland site in California. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 55:309-310

Ford, E. B. 1975. Ecological genetics (4th edition) xx + 442 pp., 18 pls. Lond.

Frey, D. F., Leong, K. L. H. 1993. Can microhabitat selection of differences in `catchability' explain male-biased sex ratios in overwintering populations of monarch butterflies? Animal Behaviour 45:1025-1027 [Keywords: sex ratio, behavior, roosting]

Frey, D. F., Leong, K. L. H. 1995. Reply to Nylin, Wickman & Wiklund regarding sex ratios of California overwintering monarch butterflies. Animal Behaviour 49:515-518 [Keywords: ecology, overwintering, sex ratio, reproduction]

Funk, R. S. 1968. Overwintering of monarch butterflies as a breeding colony in southwestern Arizona. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 22:63-64

Herman, W. S. 1988. Body weight and wing length changes in Minnesota populations of the monarch butterfly. J. Lep. Soc. 42:32-36

Hess, Q. F. 1979. Butterflies of Ontario and summaries of Lepidoptera encountered in Ontario in 1978. Occasional Publications, Toronto, Entomol. Assoc., Toronto 10:1-70

James, D. G. 1979. Observations on two overwintering clusters of Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the Sydney area during 1978. Australian Entomological Magazine 5:81-85

James, D. G. 1981. Studies on a winter breeding population of Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) at Spencer, New South Wales. General and Applied Entomology (Sydney) 13:47-53

James, D. G. 1982. A transient non-breeding population of Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) near Picton, New South Wales. Australian entomological magazine 8:96-99

James, D. G. 1984. Population and general biology of non-reproductive colonies of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) in New South Wales. Australian Journal of Zoology (Melbourne) 32:663-670 [Keywords: behavior, overwintering, mark-recapture]

Judd, W. W. 1970. Additional observations on butterflies of Dunn Township, Ontario. Ontario Field Biologist (Toronto) 24:13-16

Kingsolver, J. G. 1983. Ecological significance of flight activity in Colias butterflies: Implication for reproductive strategy and population structure. Ecol. 64:546-551

Kingsolver, J. G. 1985. Butterfly thermoregulation: Organismic mechanisms and population consequences. J. Lepid. Soc. 24:1-20

Kitching, I. J. 1985. Allozyme variation in the milkweed butterflies (Lepidoptera: Danainae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (London) 86:367-389 [Keywords: genetics, genetic variation, allozymes, electrophoresis, population structure]

Kitching, R. L., Zalucki, M. P. 1981. Observations on the ecology of Euploea core corinna (Nymphalidae) with special reference to an overwintering population. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 35:106-119

Knowlton, N. 1979. Reproductive synchrony, parental investment and evolutionary dynamics of sexual selection. Animal Behaviour 27:1022-1033

Koch, L. E., Dell, B., Keighery, G. J. 1977. The Wanderer butterfly at Bunbury and other parts of the South-west, and a new foodplant. Western Australian Naturalist 13:183-184

Lane, J. 1985. California's monarch butterfly trees. Pacific Discovery 38:13-15

Leong, K. L. H. 1990. Microenvironmental factors associated with the winter habitat of the monarch butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) in central California. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 83:906-910 [Keywords: ecology, overwintering, microhabitat, California, wind]

Leong, K. L. H., Frey, D., Brenner, G. 1991. Use of multivariate analyses to characterize the monarch butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) winter habitat. Annals of the entomological society of america 84:263-267 [Keywords: ecology, overwintering, California, microhabitat, microclimate]

Malcolm, S. B. 1987. The fourth chemical ecology meeting. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2:292-293

Neck, R. W. 1976. Summer monarch (Danaus plexippus) in southern Texas (Danaidae). J. Lepid. Soc., Cambridge, Mass. 30:137

Nylin, S., Wickman, P.-O., Wiklund, C. 1995. An adaptive explanation for male-biased sex ratios in overwintering monarch butterflies. Animal Behaviour 49:511-514 [Keywords: ecology, sex ratio, protandry hypothesis]

Platt, A. P. 1983. Evolution of North American admiral butterflies. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 29:10-22

Ramsay, G. W. 1964. Overwintering swarms of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.) in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 3:10-16

Remmert, H. 1982. And now? Ecosystem research! In Trends in ecological research in the 1980's, eds. J. H. Cooley and F. B. Golley, 179-191. New York and London: Plenum Press.

Rutowski, R. H., Newton, M., Schaefer, J. 1983. Interspecific variation in the size of the nutrient investment made by male butterflies during copulation. Evolution 37:708-713

Sakai, W. H., Lane, J., Evans, A. V., Schrumpf J., & Monroe, M. 1989. The wintering colonies of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus (L.): Nymphalidae: Lepidoptera) in the state of California. In U.S.A. California Department of Fish and Game Contract Report FG7551 . pp. 38 pages

Sherman, P. W., Watt, W. B. 1973. The thermal ecology of some Colias butterfly larvae. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 83:25-40

Singer, M. C. 1982. Sexual selection for small size in male butterflies. American Naturalist 119:440-443

Smith, D. A. S. 1973. Negative non-random mating in the polymorphic butterfly Danaus chrysippus in Tanzania. Nature (London) 242:131-132

Smith, D. a. S. 1975. All-female broods in Danaus chrysippus L. and their ecological significance. Heredity (Oxford) 34:363-371

Smith, D. A. S. 1975. Sexual selection in a wild population of the butterfly Danaus chrysippus L. Science (Washington) 187:664-665 [Keywords: behavior, reproduction, mating, sexual selection, east Africa]

Smith, D. A. S. 1980. Heterosis, epistasis and linkage disequilibrium in a wild population of the polymorphic butterfly Danaus chrysippus (L.). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society (London) 69:87-109

Smith, D. A. S. 1981. Heterozygous advantage expressed through sexual selection in a polymorphic African butterfly. Nature (London) 289:17-175

Smithers, C. N. 1972. Observations on a breeding population of Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) at Camden, New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 17:142-148

Stern, V., Smith, R. F. 1960. Factors affecting egg production and oviposition in populations of Colias philodice eurytheme Boisduva (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Hilgardia 29:411-454

Stimson, J., Berman, M. 1990. Predator induced colour polymorphism in Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Hawaii. Heredity (Oxford) 65:401-406 [Keywords: ecology, predation, vertebrate predator, Hawaii]

Stimson, J., Meyers, L. 1984 [1985]. Inheritance and frequency of a color polymorphism in Danaus plexippus (lepidoptera: Danaidae) on Ohahu [sic], Hawaii. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 23:153-160

Strong, D. R., Lawton, J. H., Southwood, S. R. 1984. Insects on plants: Community patterns and mechanisms. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. 313 pp.

Swander, M. 1974. A Monarch butterfly roosting tree in Iowa. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science 81:100-101

Swengel, A. B. 1990. Monitoring butterfly populations using the Fourth of July butterfly count. American Midland Naturalist 124:395-406 [Keywords: ecology, population fluctuations, abundance]

Swengel, A. B. 1995. Population fluctuations of the monarch (Danaus plexippus) in the 4th of July butterfly count 1977-1994. American Midland Naturalist 134:205-214 [Keywords: ecology, population fluctuations, abundance]

Tapia Dominguez, P. 1982. Danaus chrysippus (L.)y D. plexippus (L.) en la provincia de Malaga. Shilap Revista de Lepidopterologia (Madrid) 10:274

Thornhill, R., Alcock, J. 1983. Sexual selection and the evolution of insect mating systems. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 547 pp.

Tuskes, P. M., Brower, L. P. 1978. Overwintering ecology of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L., in California. Ecological Entomology 3:141-153

Urquhart, F. A. 1966. Virus-caused epizootic as a factor in population fluctuations of the Monarch butterfly. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 8:492-495

Urquhart, F. A. 1970. Fluctuation in the numbers of the Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) in North America. Atalanta (Munnerstadt) 3:104-114

Urquhart, F. A. 1974. Fluctuations in monarch butterfly populations. News of the Lepidopterists' Society 1974:1-2

Urquhart, F. A., Beard, P., Browniee, R. 1965. A population study of a hibernal roosting colony of the Monarch butterfly (D. plexippus) in nothern California. Journal of Research On the Lepidoptera 4:221-236

Urquhart, F. A., Urquhart, N. R. 1976. A study of the peninsula Florida populations of the Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; Danaidae). J. Lepid. Soc., Cambridge, Mass. 30:73-87

Vane-Wright, R. I. 1975. An integrated classification for polymorphism and sexual dimorphism in butterflies. J. Zool., Lond. 177:329-337

Vane-Wright, R. I. 1978. Ecological and behavioural origins of diversity in butterflies. Symposia of the Royal Entomological Society of London 9:56-70, 2 pls.

Vane-Wright, R. I. 1978. Ecology and evolution [meeting report]. Antenna 2:47-48

Walton, R. K., Brower, L. P. 1996. Monitoring the Fall Migration of the Monarch Butterfly Danaus Plexippus L. (Nymphalidae: Dananinae) in Eastern North America: 1991-1994. Lepidopterists' society journal 50:1-20 [Keywords: ecology, behavior, migration, population, censusing]

Watt, W. B. 1968. Adaptive significance of pigment polymorphism in Colias butterflies. I. Variation in melanin pigment in relation to thermoregulation. Evol. 22:437-458

Yamamoto, M. 1983. Relationship between sex ratio and flight activity on two related butterflies, Pieris rapae crucivora and P. napi nesis (Lepidoptera, Pieridae). Kontyu (Tokyo) 51:528-533

Yeager, D. 1974. Monarch behaviours in south Texas. News of the Lepidopterists' Society 1974:3

Young, A. M. 1974. Some differences between temperate and tropical populations of monarch (D. plexippus) and queen (D. gilippus) butterflies (Lepidoptera: Danaidae). Entomol. News, Philadelphia 85:116-126

Zalucki, M. P. 1978. Population ecology of Danaus plexippus - tracking butterfly movements. News Bull., Entomol. Soc. Queensland, St Lucia 6:99

Zalucki, M. P. 1980. Animal movement and its population consequences: with a case study of Danaus plexippus, 533 pp. [Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, School of Australian Environmental Studies, Griffith University, Queensland].

Zalucki, M. P. 1981. Temporal and spatial variation of parasitism in Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Australian Entomological Magazine 8:3-8

Zalucki, M. P., Hughes, J. M., Arthur, J. M. 1993. Seasonal variation at four loci in a continuously breeding population of Danaus plexippus L. Heredity (Oxford) 70:205-213 [Keywords: genetics, seasonal genetic variation]

Zalucki, M. P., Hughes, J. M., Carter, P. A. 1987. Genetic variation in Danaus plexippus L.: Habitat selection of differences in activity times? Heredity (Oxford) 59:213-221 [Keywords: genetics, habitat selection, activity times, Australia]

Zalucki, M. P., Kitching, R. L. 1982. Temporal and spatial variation of mortality in field populations of Danaus plexippus L. and D. chrysippus L. larvae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Oecologia (Heidelberg) 43:201-207

Zalucki, M. P., Kitching, R. L. 1984. The dynamics of adult Danaus plexippus L. (Danaidae) within patches of its food plant, Asclepias spp. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 38:209-219 [Keywords: behavior, feeding, mark-recapture, sex-ratios, Australia]

Zalucki, M. P., Suzuki, Y. 1987. Milkweed patch quality, adult population structure, and egg laying in the monarch butterfly. J. Lepid. Soc. 41:13-22 [Keywords: Asclepias, plant-animal interactions, milkweed, sex ratios, Australia]

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