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Scientific Bibliography : Monarch Behavior

Migration

Able, K. P., Able, M. A. 1990. Calibration of the magnetic compass of a migratory bird by celestial rotation. Nature (London) 347:378-380 [Keywords: migration behavior, orientation, magnetic compass, birds, vertebrates]

Allen, J. C. 1976. A modified sine wave method for calculating degree days. Environmental Entomology 5:388-396

Alonso-Mejia, A., Arellano-Guillermo, A., Brower, L. P. 1992. Influence of temperature, surface body moisture and height above ground on survival of monarch butterflies overwintering in Mexico. Biotropica (Lawrence) 24:415-419 [Keywords: behavior, overwintering, thermoregulation]

Anderson, J. B., Brower, L. P. 1996. Freeze-protection of overwintering monarch butterflies in Mexico: critical role of the forest as a blanket and an umbrella. Ecological entomology 21:107-116 [Keywords: ecology, behavior, physiology, overwintering, clustering, deforestation, conservation]

Anderson, S. 1995. The `Impossible' Journey. Noetic sciences review Fall n 35:24-

Baker, R. R. 1978. The Evolutionary Ecology of Animal Migration New York: Holmes and Meier

Baker, R. R. 1987. Integrated use of moon and magnetic compass by the heart-and-dart moth, Agrotis exclamationis. Animal Behaviour 35:94-101 [Keywords: Lepidoptera migration, orientation behavior, magnetic compass, moon compass, celestial cues]

Baker, R. R., Mather, J. M. 1982. Magnetic compass sense in the large yellow underwing moth, Noctua pronuba. Animal Behaviour 30:543-548 [Keywords: magnetic compass, orientation behavior, Lepidoptera migration]

Balda, R. P., Wiltschko, W. 1995. Spatial memory of homing pigeons, Columbia livia, tested in an outdoor aviary. Ethology (Berlin) 100:253-258 [Keywords: spatial memory, orientation, birds, vertebrates, seed caching]

Barker, J. F. 1976. On the neurendocrinology of reproduction and migration in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus. . St. Paul: Univ. of Minn.

Beall, G. 1941. The Monarch butterfly, Danaus archippus Fab. II. The movement in southern Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist (Ottowa) 55:133-137

Beall, G. 1951. A coordinated study on the migration of the Monarch butterfly:a plea for information from local naturalists. Lepid. News, Cambridge, Mass. 5:37-40

Beall, G. 1952. Migration of the Monarch butterfly during the winter. Lepid. News, Cambridge, Mass. 6:69-70

Benvenuti, S., Dall'Antonia, P., Ioale, P. 1996. Directional preferences in the autumn migration of the red admiral (Vanessa atlanta). Ethology (Berlin) 102:177-186 [Keywords: behavior, migration, orientation, temperature, Italy]

Berthold, P., Wiltschko, W., Miltenberger, H., Querner, U. 1990. Genetic transmission of migratory behavior into a nonmigratory bird population. Experientia (Basel) 46:107-108 [Keywords: migration behavior, heritability, birds, vertebrates, behavioral genetics]

Bretherton, R. F. 1984. Monarchs on the move--Danaus plexippus (L.) and D. chrysippus (L.). Proceedings and Transactions of the British Entomological and Natural History Society (Minster-in-Sheppey) 17:65-66

Brower, L. P. 1961. Studies on the migration of the monarch butterfly. 1. Breeding populations of Danaus plexippus and D. gilippus berenice in south central Florida. Ecol., Brooklyn, N.Y. 42:76-83

Brower, L. P. 1977. Monarch migration. Natural History 84:40-53

Brower, L. P. 1985. New perspectives on the migration biology of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. Contributions in Marine Science Supplement 27:748-785 [Keywords: behavior, migration, life history, Mexico]

Brower, L. P. 1986. Commentary: The potential impact of DIPEL spraying on the monarch butterfly overwintering pheneoma. Atala (Portland) 14:17-19

Brower, L. P. 1995. Understanding and misunderstanding the migration of the monarch butterfly (Nymphalidae) in North America: 1857-1995. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 49:304-385 [Keywords: migration, overwintering, history of monarch research, open questions, Mexico]

Brower, L. P. 1996. Monarch butterfly orientation: missing pieces of a magnificent puzzle. Journal of experimental biology 199:93-103 [Keywords: ecology, behavior, migration, orientation, annual cyclic orientation hypothesis]

Brower, L. P., Calvert, W. H., Hedrick, L. E., Christian, J. 1977. Biological observations on an overwintering colony of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus, Danaidae) in Mexico. Journal of the lepidopterists' society 31:232-242 [Keywords: ecology, behavior, overwintering, Mexico, migration]

Brower, L. P., Malcolm, S. B. 1991. Animal migrations: Endangered phenomena. American Zoologist 31:265-276 [Keywords: behavior, migration, overwintering, conservation]

Brown, J. J., Chippendale, G. M. 1974. Migration of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus:energy sources. Journal of Insect Physiology 20:1117-1130

Burda, H., Marhold, S., Westenberger, T., Wiltschko, R., Wiltschko, W. 1990. Magnetic compass orientation in the subterranean rodent Cryptomys hottentotus (Bathyergidae). Experientia (Basel) 46:528-530 [Keywords: orientation, magnetic compass, mole rats, magnetic field rotation, vertebrates, nest building]

Burton, J. F. 1966. Report of Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) migration experiment, 1965. Entomologist's Record and Journal of Variation 78:156-157 [Keywords: migration, anecdotal, Great Britain]

Calvert, W. H., ed. 1981. Project 1958, Conservation of the Mexican Monarch butterfly. . Vol. 1980-1981. London: [Keywords: conservation, migration, overwintering, tourism, lumbering, temperature]

Calvert, W. H., Brower, L. P. 1982. The importance of forest cover for the survival of overwintering monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus, Danaidae). J. Lepid. Soc., Cambridge, Mass. 35:216-225

Calvert, W. H., Brower, L. P., Lawton, R. O. 1992. Mass flight response of overwintering monarch butterflies (Nymphalidae) to cloud-induced changes in solar radiation intensity in Mexico. Lepidopterists' Society Journal 46:97-105 [Keywords: overwintering, cloud response, microclimate, thermoregulation, temperature, Mexico]

Calvert, W. H., Cohen, J. A. 1983. The adaptive significance of crawling up onto foliage for the survival of grounded overwintering monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in Mexico. Ecological Entomology 8:471-474

Cashatt, E. D. 1969. Monarch migration. Living Mus., Springfield, IL 31:138-139

de la Maza, E., R. G.., J. de la Maza E., and A. Diaz Frances. 1977. Movimientros migratorios de "Monarcas" en el estado de Oaxaca, Mexico. Boletin Informativo, Sociedad Mexicana de Lepidopterologia 3:12-13

Dingle, H. 1980. Ecology and evolution of migration. In Animal migration, orientation, and navigation . pp. 1-101

Drake, Gatehouse. 1995. Insect Migration.

Eanes, W. F. 1979. The monarch butterfly as a paradigm of genetic structure in a highly dispersive species. In Movement of highly mobile insects: Concepts and methodology in research, eds. R. L. Rabb and G. G. Kennedy, 88-102. Raleigh: North Carolina State Unversity.

Edelson, E. 1969. Insect travellers; some butterflies migrate for thousands of miles. Animal Kingdom 72:22-27

Edmonds, D. T. 1996. A sensitive optically detected magnetic compass for animals. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 263:295-

Fadem, C. M., Shapiro, A. M. 1979. Notes on winter roosting by monarchs (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) at an inland site in California. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 55:309-310

Fales, J. H. 1984. Spring occurrence of the monarch butterfly in Maryland. Maryland Entomologist 2:76-79

Frey, D., Leong, K. L. H., Fredericks, D., Raskowitz, S. 1992. Clustering patterns of monarch butterflies (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) at two California central coast overwintering sites. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 85:148-153 [Keywords: behavior, overwintering, clustering]

Gibo, D. L. 1981. Altitudes attained by migrating monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae), as reported by glider pilots. Canadian Journal of Zoology 59:571-572 [Keywords: behavior, migration, flight, altitude]

Gibo, D. L. 1981. Some observations on soaring flight in the mourning cloak butterfly (Nymphalis antiopa L.) in southern Ontario. New York Entomological Society 89:98-101 [Keywords: behavior, flight, soaring]

Gibo, D. L. 1986. Flight strategies of migrating monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) in southern Ontario. In Insect flight: Dispersal and migration , ed. W. Danthanarayana. pp. 172-184. Berlin: Springer-Verlag [Keywords: behavior, migration, flight, high-altitude, navigation]

Gibo, D. L., McCurdy, J. A. 1993. Evidence for use of water ballast by monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 47:154-160 [Keywords: behavior, migration, flight, lipids]

Gibo, D. L., McCurdy, J. A. 1993. Lipid accumulation by migrating monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.). Canadian Journal of Zoology 71:76-82 [Keywords: behavior, physiology, migration, lipids]

Gibo, D. L., Pallett, M. J. 1979. Soaring flight of Monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae), during the late summer migration in southern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Zoology 57:1393-1401 [Keywords: migration behavior, flight, wind effect, autumn migration, height]

Griffin, D. R. 1990. Orientation in birds. Experientia (Basel) 46:335 [Keywords: migration behavior, orientation, birds, vertebrates, search Experientia vol 46 for more articles]

Heitzman, R. 1963. Butterfly migrations in March in nothern Mexico. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 16:249-250 [Keywords: behavior, flight, migration, anecdotal]

Herman, W. S. 1985. Hormonally mediated events in adult monarch butterflies. Contributions in Marine Science Supplement 27:799-815 [Keywords: behavior, migration, physiology, endocrinology, juvenile hormone]

Hilgerloh, G., Laty, M., Wiltschko, W. 1992. Are the Pyrenees and the Western Mediterranean barriers for trans-saharan migrants in spring? Ardea (Odijik) 80:375-

Hillaby, J. 1968. Year of the Monarch. New Scientist (London) 40:425

Holloway, J. D. 1982. Further notes on the lepidoptera of Norfolk Island, with particular reference to migrant species. Journal of Natural History 16:351-365

Hu, P., Men, X., Jiang, J. 1992. Fluxgate magnetic compass - a new type of direction sensor. Hai yang yu hu chao. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica (Qingdao) 23:324-

Jackson, B. S. 1974. Monarch butterfly migration through Newfoundland. Nature Canada (Ottawa) 3:41

James, D. G. 1984. Migration and clustering phenology of Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphaliadae) in Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 23:199-204 [Keywords: ecology, behavior, migration, overwintering, temperature]

James, D. G. 1986. Studies on the migration of Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the Sydney area. Australian Entomological Magazine 13:27-31

James, D. G. 1988. Migration and behavior of non-reproductive Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the Blue Mountains, New South Wales. Australian Entomological Magazine 15:50-55

Janzen, D. H. 1987. When, and when not to leave. Oikos (Copenhagen) 49:241-243 [Keywords: migration, anecdotal]

Johnson, C. G. 1969. Migration and dispersal of insects by flight London:. xxii + 763 pp.

Jones, R. E. 1977. Movement patterns and the egg distributions of cabbage butterflies. Journal of Animal Ecology 46:195-212

Jones, R. E., Gilbert, N., Guppy, M., Nealis, V. 1980. Long distance movement in Pieris rapae. Journal of Animal Ecology 49:629-642

Jungreis, S. A. 1982. Biomagnetism: A possible orientation mechanism in migrating and non-migrating insects. University of Florida

Jungreis, S. A. 1987. Biomagnetism: an orientation mechanism in migrating insects? Florida Entomologist 70:277-283 [Keywords: biomagnetism, magnetic compass, orientation, induced magnetic remanence]

Kanz, J. E. 1977. The orientation of migrant and non-migrant Monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus (L.). Psyche (Cambridge) 84:120-141 [Keywords: migration behavior, sun orientation, no sun compass]

Kennedy, J. S. 1985. Migration, behavioral and ecological. Contributions in Marine Science Supplement 27:5-26 [Keywords: behavior, ecology, migration, definitions]

Kiepenheuer, J. 1984. The magnetic compass mechanism of birds and its possible association with the shifting course direction of migrants. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology (Berlin) 14:87-99

Kitching, R. L., Zalucki, M. P. 1982. Component analysis and modelling of the movement process: Analysis of simple tracks. Researches on Population Ecology (Kyoto) 24:224-238

Knill-Jones, S. A., Angell, B. J. 1996. Exotic and rare migrant butterflies recorded on the isle of Wight during 1995. Ent. Rec. & J. Var. 108:143-144

Lane, J. 1984. The status of monarch butterfly overwintering sites in Alta California. Atala (Portland) 9:17-20

Lane, J. 1985. California's monarch butterfly trees. Pacific Discovery 38:13-15

Lanken, D. 1993. No other butterfly migrates as far, or in such great numbers, as the monarch. Canadian Geographic 113:36-46 [Keywords: general review, migration, life cycle, Canada, Mexico]

Lohmann, K. J. 1992. How Sea Turtles Navigate. Scientific American (New York) 266:100

Lohmann, K. J., Lohmann, C. M. F. 1993. A light-independent magnetic compass in the leatherback sea turtle. Biological Bulletin 185:149-151 [Keywords: migration, orientation, magnetic compass, vertebrates, turtles]

Lovegrove, B. G., Kortner, G., G., K. 1992. The magnetic compass orientation of the burrows of the Damara mole-rat Cryptomys damarensis (Bathyergidae). Journal of Zoology (London) 226:631-

Lu, Z., Lu, L. 1994. The origins and development of the magnetic compass and a probe for the date concerned. Li shih yen chiu 1994:34-

Lugger, O. 1890. On the migration of the milkweed butterfly. Proc. Ent. Soc. 1:256-258 [Keywords: behavior, flight, migration, anecdotal]

MacFadden, B. J., Jones, D. S. 1985. Magnetic butterflies: a case study of the Monarch (Lepidoptera, Danaidae). In Magnetite and biomineralization and magnetoreception in organisms , ed. J. L. Kirschvink, D. S. Jones, B. J. MacFadden. pp. 407-415. New York: Plenum Press [Keywords: behavior, migration, magnetic orientation, magnetite, physiology, biomagnetism]

Malcolm, S. B. 1987. Monarch butterfly migration in North America: Controversy and conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2:135-138 [Keywords: migration, conservation, Wenner, western population]

Malcolm, S. B. 1993. Conservation of monarch butterfly migration in North America: an endangered phenomenon. In Biology and Conservation of the Monarch Butterfly , ed. S. B. Malcolm, M. P. Zalucki. pp. 357-362. Science series. Vol. 38. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.

Malcolm, S. B., Brower, L. P. 1987. White monarchs. Antenna 11:2-3

Matsuka, H. 1978. I found a huge hibernating mass of Danaus plexippus in the Mexican mountains. Yadoriga (Kyoto) 93-94:25-37

Matthews, D. 1992. Mountain monarchs: In the Mexican highlands, monarch butterflies by the millions awaken to the warming spring sun. Wildlife Conservation 95:26-29,78 [Keywords: general review, migration, lay, conservation]

McNeill, F. A. 1937. Notes on the gregarious resting habit of the Danaine butterfly, Danaus melissa hamata W. S. MacLeay, in the Whitsunday Islands of the E. coast of Queensland. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London 12:108

Merwin, W. S. 1996. The Winter Palace. Orion (New York) 15:44- [Keywords: anecdotal, behavior, overwintering, migration, lay review]

Moffat, J. A. 1902. Anosia archippus does not hibernate. Report of the Entomological Society of Ontario 32:78-82

Monteith, G. B. 1982. Dry season aggregations of insects in Australian monsoon forests. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 20:533-543

Munro, U., Wiltschko, W. 1993. Magnetic compass orientation in the yellow-faced honeyeater, Lichenostomus chrysops, a day migrating bird from Australia. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology (Berlin) 32:141-145 [Keywords: orientation, magnetic compass, birds, vertebrates, inclination, Australia]

Nagano, C. D., Lane, J. 1985. A survey of the location of monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus [L.]) overwintering roosts in the state of California, U. S. A.: First year 1984/85 . 106 pp.

Newitt, L. R. 1991. The effect of changing magnetic declination on the compass. Miscellaneous report - Geological Survey of Cana 52

Opat, G. I. 1990. Coriolis and magnetic forces: The gyrocompass and magnetic compass as analogs. American Journal of Physics 58:1173-

Ordish, G. 1975. The year of the butterfly New York:. xii + 147 pp.

Phillips, J. B. 1985. Magnetic orientation in the eastern red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens). Journal of Comparative Physiology A 158:103-109

Phillips, J. B. 1986. Two magnetoreception pathways in a migratory salamander. Science (Washington) 233:765-767

Phillips, J. B. 1987. Homing orientation in the eastern red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens). Journal of Experimental Biology 131:215-229

Phillips, J. B. 1996. Magnetic navigation. Journal of Theoretical Biology 180:309-319 [Keywords: migration behavior, magnetic compass, review, bicoordinate map model]

Phillips, J. B., Borland, S. C. 1992. Magnetic compass orientation is eliminated under near-infrared light in the eastern red-spotted newt Notophthalmus viridescens. Animal Behaviour 44:796-797 [Keywords: orientation, magnetic compass, vertebrate visual system, migration, behavior]

Phillips, J. B., Sayeed, O. 1993. Wavelength-dependent effects of light on magnetic compass orientation in Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Comparative Physiology A 172

Ramsay, G. W. 1964. Overwintering swarms of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.) in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 3:10-16

Rankin, M. A. 1985. Endocrine influence on flight behavior. Contributions in Marine Science Supplement, 27:817-841 [Keywords: behavior, physiology, endocrinology, migration, juvenile hormone, octopamine]

Rankin, M. A., McAnelly, M. L., Bodenhamer, J. E. 1986. The oogenesis-flight syndrome revisted. In Insect flight: Dispersal and migration , ed. W. Danthanarrayana. pp. 27-48. Heidelberg and Berlin: Springer-Verlag [Keywords: life-history strategy, migration, reproduction, resource allocation]

Ranvaud, R., Schmidt-Koenig, K., Ganzhorn, J. U. 1991. The initial orientation of homing pigeons at the magnetic equator: compass mechanisms and the effect of applied magnets. Journal of experimental biology 162:299-314 [Keywords: behavior, migration, magnetic orientation, homing pigeons]

Rawlings, J. E., Lederhouse, R. C. 1981. Developmental influences of thermal behavior on Monarch caterpillars (Danaus plexippus): an adaptation for migration (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 54:378-408 [Keywords: behavior, thermoregulation, development]

Riley, C. V. 1878. On migratory butterflies. J. Proc. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, St. Louis, MO. 3:cclxxiii-cclxxiv

Rogers, D. 1983. Pattern and proces in large-scale animal movement. In The ecology of animal movement . pp. 160-180

Schmidt-Koenig, K. 1960. Internal clocks and homing. Cold Sping Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 25:389-393

Schmidt-Koenig, K. 1979. Directions of migrating Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus; Danaidae, Lepidoptera) in some parts of the eastern United States. Behavioural Processes (Amsterdam) 4:73-78

Schmidt-Koenig, K. 1985. Migration strategies of monarch butterflies. Contributions in Marine Science Supplement 27:786-798 [Keywords: behavior, migration, orientation, magnetic compass]

Schmidt-Koenig, K. 1990. The sun compass. Experientia (Basel) 46:336-342 [Keywords: migration, orientation, navigation, sun compass, sun azimuth, birds, vertebrates]

Schmidt-Koenig, K. 1991. Uber Karten und Kompasse bei Brieftauben. Verhandlungen 84:125-

Schmidt-Koenig, K. 1993. Orientation of autumn migration in the monarch butterfly. In Biology and Conservation of the Monarch Butterfly , ed. B. S. Malcolm, M. P. Zalucki. pp. 275-283. Science Series. Vol. 38. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County [Keywords: behavior, migration, vanishing bearings]

Schneider, T., Thalau, H. P., Wiltschko, W. 1994. Melatonin is crucial for the migratory orientation of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca Pallas). Journal of experimental biology 194:255-

Seachrist, L. 1994. Sea turtles master migration with magnetic memories. Science (Washington) 264:661-662 [Keywords: migration behavior, magnetic orientation, Ken Lohmann, magnetic compass, secondary report of primary research]

Shepardson, L. 1914. The butterfly trees San Francisco:. 32 pp.

Shields, O. 1968. Hilltopping: An ecological study of summit congregation behavior of butterflies on a southern California hill. Journal of Research On the Lepidoptera 6:69-178

Shields, O. 1974. Toward a theory of butterfly migration. Journal of Research On the Lepidoptera 13:217-238

Smith, D. A. S. 1975. The significance of aggregations in Danaid butterflies. Bulletin, East African Natural History Society, Nairobi 1975:72-73

Smithers, C. N. 1965. A note on overwintering in Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Australia. Australian Zool., Sydney 13:135-136

Smithers, C. N. 1977. Seasonal distribution and breeding status of Danaus plexippus (L.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Australia. Journal of the Australian Entomology Society 16:175-184

Smithers, C. N. 1983. Migration records in Australia 3. Danainae and Acraeinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Australian Entomological Magazine 10:21-27

Taylor, L. R., Taylor, R. A. J. 1983. Insect migration as a paradigm for survival by movement. In The ecology of animal movement . pp. 181-214

Tetens Nielsen, A., Tetens Nielsen, E. 195? Migration of the Pieride Butterfly Ascia monuste L. in Florida. Entomol. Meddr. 26:386-391 [Keywords: migration, Florida]

Tetens Nielsen, E., Tetens Nielsen, A. 1950. Contributions toward the knowledge of the migration of Butterflies. American Museum Noviates 1471:1-29 [Keywords: migration, Florida]

Thaxter, R. 1880. Swarming of archippus. Canadian Entomologist 12:38-39

Troyer, H. L., Burks, C. S., Lee, R. E. 1996. Phenology of cold-hardiness in reproductive and migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in southwest Ohio. Journal of Insect Physiology 42:633-642

Tuskes, P. M., Brower, L. P. 1978. Overwintering ecology of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L., in California. Ecological Entomology 3:141-153

Ugolini, A., Pezzani, A. 1995. Magnetic compass and learning of the Y-axis (sea-land) direction in the marine isopod Idotea baltica basteri. Animal Behaviour 50:295-300 [Keywords: orientation, magnetic compass, crustacean, Italy]

Urquhart, F. A. The monarch butterfly: International traveler Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 232 pp.

Urquhart, F. A. 1965. Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) migration studies; autumnal movement. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario 95:23 [Keywords: migration behavior, autumn migration, alar tags, map, mark recapture]

Urquhart, F. A. 1966. A study of the migration of the Gulf coast populations of the Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) in North America. Annales Zoologici Fennici 3:82-87

Urquhart, F. A. 1976. Found at last: the Monarch's winter home. National Geographic Magazine (Washington) 150:160-173

Urquhart, F. A. 1976. Migrant monarchs in the Atlantic between Cape Cod and Bermuda. News of the Lepidopterists' Society 1976:6 [Keywords: migration behavior, flight over water, anecdotal]

Urquhart, F. A. 1976. Migration of butterflies along the Gulf Coast of northern Florida. J. Lepid. Soc., Cambridge, Mass. 30:59-61

Urquhart, F. A., Urquhart, N. R. 1976. Monarch butterfly (Danaus p. plexippus L.) overwintering population in Mexico (Lep. Danaidae). Atalanta (Munnerstadt) 7:56-61

Urquhart, F. A., Urquhart, N. R. 1976. The overwintering site of the eastarn population of the monarch butterfly (Danaus p. plexippus; Danaidae) in southern Mexico. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 30:153-158 [Keywords: ecology, overwintering sites, Mexico]

Urquhart, F. A., Urquhart, N. R. 1977. Overwintering areas and migratory routes of the monarch butterfly (Danaus p. plexippus, Lepidoptera: Danaidae) in North America, with special reference to the western population. Canadian Entomologist 109:1583-1589 [Keywords: ecology, behavior, migration, overwintering, Mexico, California]

Urquhart, F. A., Urquhart, N. R. 1978. Autumnal migration routes of the eastern population of the Monarch butterfly (Danaus p. plexippus L., Danaidae: Lepidoptera) in North America to the overwintering site in the neo-volcanic plateau of Mexico. Canadian Journal of Zoology 56:1759-1764 [Keywords: migration behavior, autumn migration, migration routes, mark recapture, alar tags, Mexico]

Urquhart, F. A., Urquhart, N. R. 1978. Migrations of the eastern population of the Monarch butterfly in North America to the overwintering site in the neo-volanic plateau of Mexico. Atalanta (Munnerstadt) 9:133-139

Urquhart, F. A., Urquhart, N. R. 1979. Aberrant autumnal migration of the eastern population of the Monarch butterfly, Danaus p. plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaidae) as it relates to the occurence of strong westerly winds. Canadian Entomologist 111:1281-1286 [Keywords: autumn migration, Caribbean, wind effect, overwintering]

Urquhart, F. A., Urquhart, N. R. 1979. Breeding areas and overnight roosting locations in the northern range of the Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus plexippus) with a summary of associated migratory routes. Canadian Field-Naturalist (Ottowa) 93:41-47

Urquhart, F. A., Urquhart, N. R. 1979. Vernal migration of the monarch butterfly (Danaus p. plexippus), Lepidoptera: Danaidae) in North America from the overwintering site in the neo-volcanic plateau of Mexico. Canadian Entomologist 111:15-18 [Keywords: behavior, migration, spring migration routes]

Urquhart, F. A., Urquhart, N. R., Munger, F. 1970. A study of a continuously breeding population of Danaus plexippus in southern California compared to a migratory population and its significance in the study of insect movement. Journal of Research On the Lepidoptera 7:169-181

Vane-Wright, R. I. 1987. Dick Vane-Wright replies...[Reply to Malcolm and Brower]. Antenna 11:3

Walker, J. J. 1914. The geographical distribution of Danaida plexippus, L. (Danais archippus, F.) with special reference to its recent migrations. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 50:181-193, 233-237

Walker, M. M., Kirschvink, J. L., Ahmed, G. 1992. Evidence that fin whales respond to the geomagnetic field during migration. Journal of experimental biology 171:67-

Walker, T. J. 1985. Butterfly migration in the boundary layer. Contributions in Marine Science Supplement 27:704-723 [Keywords: behavior, migration, altitude, wind speed, Florida peninsula]

Walker, T. J., Riodan, A. D. 1981. Butterfly migration: Are synoptic-scale wind systems important? Ecological Entomology 6:433-440 [Keywords: Lepidoptera migration, wind effect, orientation behavior, autumn migration, Florida]

Walton, R. K., Brower, L. P. 1996. Monitoring the Fall Migration of the Monarch Butterfly Danaus Plexippus L. (Nymphalidae: Dananinae) in Eastern North America: 1991-1994. Lepidopterists' society journal 50:1-20 [Keywords: ecology, behavior, migration, population, censusing]

Wang, H. Y., Emmel, T. C. 1991. Migration and overwintering aggregations of nine Danaine butterfly species in Taiwan (Nymphalidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 44:216-228 [Keywords: migration, overwintering, Taiwan]

Ward, B. 1987. The mystery of monarch migration. Sky Sept. 1987:12-23

Weindler, P., Beck, W., Liepa, V., Wiltschko, W. 1995. Development of migratory orientation in pied flycatchers in different magnetic inclinations. Animal Behaviour 49:227-234 [Keywords: orientation, magnetic compass, migration, birds, vertebrate, celestial cues]

Williams, C. B. 1930. The migration of butterflies London:. xii + 473 pp.

Williams, C. B. 1933. Further collected records relating to insect migration. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 81:103-115

Williams, C. B. 1958. Insect Migration London:. [xiv] + 235 pp.

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