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Scientific Bibliography : Monarch Biochemistry

Defense

Alonso-Mejia, A., Brower, L. P. 1994. From model to mimic: age-dependent unpalatability in monarch butterflies. Experientia (Basel) 50:176-181 [Keywords: cardiac glycosides, predation, defense, aging, mimicry]

Aplin, R. T., Rothschild, M. 1972. Poisonous alkaloids in the body tissues of the garden tiger moth (Arctia caja L.) and the cinnabar moth (Tyria(=Callimorpha) jacobeae L.) (Lep.). In Toxins of animal and plant origin, eds. A. deVries and E. Kochuapp, 579-595. London: Gordon and Breach.

Benson, J. M., Seiber, J. N. 1978. High-speed liquid chromatography of cardiac glycosides in milkweed plants and monarch butterflies. Journal of Chromatography (Amsterdam & London) 148:521-527

Boppre, M. 1981. Adult lepidoptera "feeding" at withered Heliotropium plants (Boraginaceae) in East Africa. Ecological entomology 6:449-452 [Keywords: behavior, feeding, ecology, secondary substances, chemical defense, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, PAs]

Boppre, M. 1986. Insects pharmacophagously utilizing defensive plant chemicals (pyrrolizidine alkaloids). Naturwissenschaften (Berlin) 73:17-26 [Keywords: chemical defense, cardiac glycoside, secondary plant compounds]

Boppre, M. 1990. Lepidoptera and pyrrolizidine alkaloids: Exemplification of complexity in chemical ecology. Journal of Chemical Ecology 16:165-185 [Keywords: physiology, chemical defense, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, PAs, secondary compounds]

Bowers, M. D. 1980. Unpalatability as a defense strategy of Euphydryas phaeton. Evolution 34:586-600

Bowers, M. D. 1981. Unpalatability as a defense strategy of western checkerspot butterflies (Euphydryas). Evolution 35:367-375

Brower, J. V. Z. 1963. Experimental studies and new evidence on the evolution of mimicry in butterflies. Proceedings of the International Congress of Zoology (Washington) 4:156-161

Brower, L. P. 1968. Automimicry, an extension of mimicry theory. American Zoologist 8:475

Brower, L. P. 1969. Ecological chemistry. Scientific American (New York) 220:22-29 [Keywords: ecology, defense, secondary compounds, cardenolides, Asclepias, see Slansky]

Brower, L. P. 1970. Plant poisons in a terrestrial food chain and implications for mimicry theory. In Chambers, K. L., Biochemical Evolution: 69-82. Corvallis, Orgegon. Proceedings of the 29th Annual Biological Colloquium, 1968.

Brower, L. P. 1972. Ecological chemistry of the palatability-cardiac glycoside spectrum in Monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, and Asclepias milkweeds. American Zoologist 12:712-713

Brower, L. P. 1984. Chemical defence in butterflies. Symposia of the Royal Entomological Society of London 11:109-134

Brower, L. P., Brower, J. V. Z. 1964. Birds, butterflies and plant poisons: a study in ecological chemistry. Zool. (New York) 49:137-159

Brower, L. P., Brower, J. V. Z., Corvino, J. M. 1967. Plant poisons in a terrestrial food chain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 57:893-898

Brower, L. P., Brower, J. V. Z., Stiles, F. G., Croze, H. J., Hower, A. S. 1964. Mimicry:differential advantage of colour patterns in the natural environment. Science (Washington) 144:183-185

Brower, L. P., Edmunds, M., Moffitt, C. M. 1975. Cardenolide content and palatability of a population of Danaus chrysippus butterflies from West Africa. Journal of Entomology A 49:183-196

Brower, L. P., Gibson, D. O., Moffitt, C. M., Panchen, A. L. 1978. Cardenolide content of Danaus chrysippus butterflies from three areas of East Africa. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (London) 10:251-273

Brower, L. P., Glazier, S. C. 1975. Localization of heart poisons in the monarch butterfly. Science (Washington) 188:19-25

Brower, L. P., McEvoy, P. B., Williamson, K. L., Flannery, M. A. 1972. Variation in cardiac glycoside content of monarch butterflies from natural populations in eastern North America. Science (Washington) 177:426-429 [Keywords: chemical defense, cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, sex differences]

Brower, L. P., Moffitt, C. M. 1974. Palatability dynamics of cardenolides in the monarch butterfly. Nature (London) 249:280-283

Brower, L. P., Nelson, C. J., Seiber, J. N., Fink, L. S., Bond, C. 1988. Exaptation as an alternative to coevolution in the cardenolide-based chemical defense of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) against avian predators. In Chemical mediation of coevolution , ed. K. C. Spencer. pp. 447-475. New York: Academic Press [Keywords: chemical defense, cardiac glycoside, birds, predation, physiology]

Brower, L. P., Pough, F. H., Meck, H. R. 1970. Theoretical investigations of automimicry. I. Single trial learning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 66:1059-1066

Brower, L. P., Ryerson, W. N., Coppinger, L. L., Glazier, S. C. 1968. Ecological chemistry and the palatability spectrum. Science (Washington) 161:1349-1350

Brower, L. P., Seiber, J. N., Nelson, C. J., Lynch, S. P., Hoggard, M. P., Cohen, J. A. 1984. Plant determined variation in cardenolide content and thin-layer chromatography profiles of monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus reared on milkweed plants in California: 3. Asclepias californica. Journal of Chemical Ecology 10:1823-1857 [Keywords: physiology, chemical defense, cardiac glycosides, cardenolide fingerprint]

Brower, L. P., Seiber, J. N., Nelson, C. J., Lynch, S. P., Holland, M. M. 1984. Plant determined variation in the cardenolide content, thin-layer chromatography profiles, and emetic potency of monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus L. reared on milkweed plants in California: 2. Asclepias speciosa. Journal of Chemical Ecology 10:601-639 [Keywords: physiology, chemical defense, cardiac glycosides, cardenolide fingerprint]

Brower, L. P., Seiber, J. N., Nelson, C. J., Lynch, S. P., Tuskes, P. M. 1982. Plant determined variation in the cardenolide content, thin layer chromatography profiles, and emetic potency of Monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, reared on the milkweed, Asclepias eriocarpa, in California. Journal of Chemical Ecology 8:579-633 [Keywords: physiology, chemical defense, cardiac glycosides, cardenolide fingerprint]

Brower, L. P., Williamson, K. L., Flannery, M. A., Uman, H. M. 1970. A quantitative assay for cardiac glycosides in the monarch butterfly and its milkweed foodplants. American Zoologist 10:540

Brower, L. P. F., L. S. 1985. A natural toxic defense system: Cardenolides in butterflies versus birds. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 443:171-186

Brown, K. S. 1984. Adult-obtained pyrrolizidine alkaloids defend ithmoniine butterflies against a spider predator. Nature (London) 309:707-709

Brown, K. S., Jr. 1985. Chemical ecology of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in adult Ithomiinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Revista Brasiliera de Biologia 44:435-460

Bull, L. B., Culvenor, C. C. J., Dick, A. T. 1968. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids, their chemistry, pathogenicity and other biological properties. Frontiers of Biology 9: xvi + 293

Cheeke, P. R. P.-G., M. L. 1983. Toxicity of Senecio jacobaea and pyrrolizidine alkaloids in various laboratory animals and avian species. Toxicology Letters (Amsterdam) 18:343-349

Cheung, H. T. A., Nelson, C. J., Watson, T. R. 1988. New glucoside conjugates and other cardenolide glycosides from the monarch butterfly reared on Asclepias fruticosa L. Journal of the Chemical Society Perkin Transactions I:1851-1857

Cohen, J. A. 1985. Differences and similarities in cardenolide content of queen and monarch butterflies in Florida and their ecological and evolutionary implications. Journal of Chemical Ecology 11:85-103 [Keywords: chemical defense, mimicry, cardenolide fingerprint, cardiac glycosides]

Coppinger, R. P. 1970. The effect of experience and novelty on avian feeding behavior with reference to the evolution of warning coloration in butterflies. II. Reactions of naive birds to novel insects. American Naturalist 104:323-335

Cott, H. B. 1940. Adaptive coloration in animals 508 pp. London.

Dixon, C. A., Erickson, J. M., Kellet, D. N., Rothschild, M. 1978. Some adaptations between Danaus plexippus and its food plant, with notes on Danaus chrysippus and Euploea core (Insecta: Lepidoptera). Journal of Zoology (London) 185:437-467 [Keywords: behavior, feeding, host plant use, chemical defence, cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, sequestration]

Duffey, S. S. 1970. Cardiac glycosides and distastefulness: some observations on the palatability spectrum of butterflies. Science (Washington) 169:78-79

Duffey, S. S., Blum, M. S., Isman, M. B., Scudder, G. G. E. 1978. Cardiac glycosides: A physical system for their sequestration by the milkweed bug. Journal of Insect Physiology 24:639-645

Duffey, S. S., Scudder, G. G. F. 1972. Cardiac glycosides in North American Asclepiadaceae, a basis for unpalatability in brightly coloured Hemiptera and Coleoptera. Journal of Insect Physiology 18:63-78

Dussourd, D. E., Denno, R. F. 1991. Deactivation of plant defense: Correspondence between insect behavior and secretory canal architecture. Ecology 72:1383-1396 [Keywords: feeding, foraging behavior, chemical defense, secondary compounds]

Dussourd, D. E., Ubik, K., Harvis, C., Resch, J., Meinwald, J., Eisner, T. 1988. Biparental defensive endowment of eggs with acquired plant alkaloid in the moth Utetheisa ornatrix. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 85:5992-5996 [Keywords: chemical defense, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, PAs, cardiac glycosides, predation, mating behavior, pheromone]

Dussourd, D. E., Ubik, K., Resch, J. F., Meinwald, J., Eisner, T. 1984. Egg protection by parental investment of plant alkaloids in Lepidoptera. XVII Internt'l. Congr. Ent., Hamburg:840

Edgar, J. A. 1982. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids sequestered by Solomon Island danine butterflies. The feeding preferences of the Danainae and Ithomiinae. Journal of Zoology and the Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 196:385-399 [Keywords: foraging behavior, PAs, chemical defense]

Edgar, J. A., Boppre, M., Schneider, D. 1979. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid storage in African and Australian danaid butterflies. Experientia (Basel) 35:1447-1448

Edgar, J. A., Cockrum, P. A., Frahn, J. L. 1976. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Danaus plexippus L. and Danaus chrysippus L. Experientia (Basel) 32:1535-1537 [Keywords: PA, pheromones, hairpencils, defense]

Edgar, J. A., Culvenor, C. C. J. 1974. Pyrrolizidine ester alkaloid in Danaid butterflies. Nature (London) 248:614-616

Edgar, J. A., Culvenor, C. C. J. 1975. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Parsonsia species (family Apocynaceae) which attract Danaid butterflies. Experientia (Basel) 31:393-394

Edmunds, M. 1974. Defence in animals: a survey of anti-preclator defences. xvii + 357 pp. Harlow.

Egelhaaf, A., Colln, K., Schmitz, B., Buck, M., Wink, M., Schneider, D. 1990. Organ specific storage of dietary pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the arctiid moth Creatonotos transiens. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung 45c:172-177 [Keywords: physiology, chemical defence, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, secondary compounds, secondary substances, sex differences]

Eisner, T. 1980. Chemistry, defense, and survival: Case studies and selected topics. In Insect biology in the future , ed. M. Locke, D. S. Smith. pp. 847-878. New York: Academic Press

Erickson, J. M. 1973. The utilization of various Asclepias species by the larvae of the Monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus. Psyche (Cambridge) 80:230-244 [Keywords: behavior, feeding, Asclepias, cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, toxicity spectrum, fertility, fecundity]

Feltwell, J., Rothschild, M. 1974. Carotenoids in thirty-eight species of Lepidoptera. J. Zool., Lond. 174:441-465

Ferm, B. 1977. A comparative study of cardiac glycoside sequestering by Danaus plexippus and Danaus chrysippus. Senior honors thesis. Amherst, MA: Amherst Coll. 64

Fink, L. S. 1980. Bird predation on overwintering monarch butterflies. Honors thesis. Amherst, MA. Amherst College

Fink, L. S., Brower, L. P. 1981. Birds can overcome the cardenolide defence of Monarch butterflies in Mexico. Nature (London) 291:67-70 [Keywords: defense, cardenolides, bird predation, Mexico]

Frick, C., Wink, M. 1995. Uptake and sequestration of quabain and other cardiac glycosides in Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danaide): Evidence for a carrier-mediated process. Journal of chemical ecology :557-575 [Keywords: chemical defense, cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, secondary compounds, ouabain, uptake, carrier]

Gibson, D. O. 1984. How is automimicry maintained? Symposia of the Royal Entomological Society of London 11:163-165

Glendinning, J. I. 1989. Comparative responses of five sympatric species of mice to overwintering colonies of monarch butterflies. University of Florida

Glendinning, J. I. 1990. Responses of three mouse species to deterrent chemicals in the monarch butterfly. II. Taste tests using intact monarchs. Chemoecology (Stuttgart) 1:124-

Glendinning, J. I., Alonso, A., Brower, L. P. 1988. Behavioral and ecological interaction of foraging mice (Peromyscus melanotis) with overwintering monarch butterflies (Danaus pl.exippus) in Mexico. Oecologia (Heidelberg) 75:222-227 [Keywords: ecology, behavior, vertebrate predators, overwintering, chemical defense]

Glendinning, J. I., Brower, L. P. 1990. Feeding and breeding responses of five mice species to overwintering aggregations of the monarch butterfly. Journal of Animal Ecology 59:1091-1112 [Keywords: ecology, overwintering, physiology, chemical defense, vertebrate predator]

Glendinning, J. I., Brower, L. P., Montgomery, C. A. 1990. Responses of three mouse species to deterrent chemicals in the monarch butterfly. I. Tast and toxicity tests using artificial diets laced with digitoxin or monocrotaline. Chemoecology (Stuttgart) 1:114-123

Gould, F. 1988. Genetics of pairwise and multispecies plant-herbivore coevolution. In Chemical mediation of coevolution , ed. K. C. Spencer. pp. 13-55. New York: Academic Press, Inc. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers [Keywords: behavior, physiology, chemical defense, plant-animal interactions]

Holzinger, F., Wink, M. 1996. Mediation of cardiac glycoside insensitivity in the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) - Role of an amino-acid substitution in the ouabain binding-site of Na+, K+ ATPase. Journal of Chemical Ecology 22:1921-1937

Groeneveld, H. W., Steijl, H., van den Berg, B., Elings, J. C. 1990. Rapid, quantitative HPLC analysis of Asclepias fruticosa L. and Danaus plexippus L. cardenolides. Journal of chemical ecology 16:3373-3382 [Keywords: chemical defense, cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, milkweed, sequestration]

Guilford, T., Nicol, C., Rothschild, M., Moore, B. P. 1987. The biological roles of pyrazines: Evidence for a warning odour function. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (London) 32:113-128

Harborne, J. B. 1982. Introduction to ecological biochemistry, 2nd. ed. London: Academic Press. xvi + 278 pp.

Harborne, J. B. e. 1972. Phytochemical ecology. N. Y. & Lond.: Acad. Press

Holzinger, F., Frick, C., Wink, M. 1992. Molecular basis for the insensitivity of the Monarch (Danaus plexippus) to cardiac glycosides (FEBS 11920). FEBS (Federation of European Biochemical Societies) Letters 314:477-480 [Keywords: physiology, chemical defense, cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, sequestration]

Huheey, J. E. 1984. Warning coloration and mimicry. In Chemical ecology of insects, eds. W. J. Bell and R. T. Carde, 257-297. London and New York: Chapman and Hall, 524 pp.

Jeffords, M. R., Sternburg, J. G., Waldbauer, G. P. 1979. Batesian mimicry: field demonstration of the survival value of pipevine swallowtail and monarch colour patterns. Evolution 33:275-286

Jones, F. M. 1932. Insect coloration and the relative acceptability of insects to birds. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 80:345-386

Jones, F. M. 1934. Further experiments on coloration and relative acceptability of insects to birds. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 82:443-453

Kay, D., Rothschild, M., Aplin, R. 1969. Particles present in the haemolymph and defensive secretions of insects. Journal of Cell Science 4:369-379

Kelley, R. B., Seiber, J. N., Jones, A. D., Segall, H. J., Brower, L. P. 1987. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in overwintering monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) from Mexico. Experientia (Basel) 43:943-946

Lynch, S. P., Martin, R. A. 1987. Cardenolide content and thin-layer chromatography profiles of monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus L., and their larval host-plant milkweed, Asclepias viridis Walt., in northwestern Louisiana. Journal of Chemical Ecology 13:47-69 [Keywords: chemical defense, cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, cardenolide fingerprint]

Lynch, S. P., Martin, R. A. 1993. Milkweed host plant utilization and cardenolide sequestration by monarch butterflies in Louisiana and Texas. In Biology and Conservation of the Monarch Butterfly , ed. S. B. Malcolm, M. P. Zalucki. pp. 107-123. Science Series. Vol. 38. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County [Keywords: behavior, feeding, host plant utilization, cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, sequestration]

Malcolm, S. B. 1990. Chemical defence in chewing and sucking insect herbivores: plant-derived cardenolides in the monarch butterfly and oleander aphid. Chemoecology (Stuttgart) 1:12-

Malcolm, S. B. 1990. Mimicry: Status of a classical evolutionary paradigm. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 5:57-62 [Keywords: chemical defense, mimicry]

Malcolm, S. B. 1994. Milkweeds, monarch butterflies and the ecological significance of cardenolides. Chemoecology (Stuttgart) 5/6:101-117 [Keywords: ecology, chemical defence, cardenolides, cardiac glycosides, aposematic coloration, plant-animal interactions]

Malcolm, S. B., Brower, L. P. 1989. Evolutionary and ecological implications of cardenolide sequestration in the monarch butterfly. Experientia (Basel) 45:284-295 [Keywords: behavior, migration, annual cycle, life history, overwintering, Asclepias, cardenolides, defense]

Malcolm, S. B., Cockrell, B. J., Brower, L. P. 1989. The cardenolide fingerprint of monarch butterflies reared on the common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L. Journal of Chemical Ecology 15:819-853 [Keywords: chemical defence, cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, cardenolide fingerprint]

Marsh, N. A., Rothschild, M. 1974. Aposematic and cryptic lepidoptea tested on the mouse. J. Zool., Lond. 174:89-122

Martin, R. A., Lynch, S. P. 1988. Cardenolide content and thin-layer chromatography profiles of monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus L., and their larval host-plant milkweed, Asclepias asperula subsp. capricornu (Woods.) Woods., in north central Texas. Journal of Chemical Ecology 14:295-318 [Keywords: chemical defense, cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, cardenolide fingerprint]

Martin, R. A., Lynch, S. P., Brower, L. P., Malcolm, S. B., Van Hook, T. 1992. Cardenolide content, emetic potency, and thin-layer chromatography profiles of monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus, and their larval host-plant milk-weed, Asclepias humistrata, in Florida. Chemoecology (Stuttgart) 3:1-13 [Keywords: physiology, milkweed, Asclepias, chemical defense, cardiac glycoside, sequestration, cardenolide fingerprint]

Marty, M. 1983. Metabolism and disposition of milkweed (Asclepiadaceae) cardenolides in monarch butterfly larvae, Danaus plexippus, and in a predator, Peromyscus maniculatus. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California

Marty, M. A., Krieger, R. J. 1984. Metabolism of uscharidin, a milkweed cardenolide, by tissue homogenates of monarch butterfly larvae, Danaus plexippus L. Journal of Chemical Ecology 10:945-956 [Keywords: physiology, chemical defense, cardenolides, cardiac glycosides, metabolism]

Mayer, A. G. 1897. On the color and color-patterns of moths and butterflies. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 30:169-256, 10 pls.

McCann, C. 1953. Aposematic insects and their food plants. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 51:752-754

McIsaac, H. P. 1991. The capture and release of a monarch butterfly (Nymphalidae: Danainae) by a barn swallow. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 45:62-63 [Keywords: chemical defense, vertebrate predator, anecdotal]

Moore, L. V., Scudder, G. G. E. 1985. Selective sequestration of milkweed (Asclepias spp.) cardenolides in Oncopeltus fasciatus. Journal of Insect Physiology 1:27-33

Nahrstedt, A., Davis, R. H. 1981. The occurrence of cyanoglucosides, linamarin and lotaustralin, in Acraea and Heliconius butterflies. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 68B:575-577

Nahrstedt, A., Davis, R. H. 1983. Occurence, variation and biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin in species of the Heliconiini. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 75B:65-73

Nelson, C. J. 1988. Milkweeds, monarchs and cardenolide glycosides, a study in three parts. . pp. 320. Sydney: University of Sydney

Nishio, S. 1980. The fates and adaptive significance of cardenolides sequestered by larvae of Danaus plexippus (L.) and Cycnia inopinatus (Hy. Edwards). Ph.D. dissertation. Athens: University of Georgia.

Nishio, S., Blum, M. S., Takahashi, S. 1983. Intraplant distribution of cardenolides in Asclepias humistrata (Asclepiadaceae), with additional notes on their fates in Tetraopes melanurus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and Rhyssomatus lineaticollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Memoirs of the College of Agriculture, Kyoto University 122:43-52

Owen, D. F. 1970. Mimetic polymorphism and the palatability spectrum. Oikos 21:333-336

Parsons, J. A. 1965. A digitalis-like toxin in the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. J. Physiol., Lond. 178:290-304

Pasteels, J. M., Gregoire, J.-C., Rowell-Rahier, M. 1983. The chemical ecology of defense in arthropods. Annual Review of Entomology 28:263-289

Pasteels, J. M., Rowell-Rahier, M., Braekman, J. C., Dupont, A. 1983. Salicin from host plant as precursor of salicylaldehyde in defensive secretion of chrysomeline larvae. Physiological Entomology (Oxford) 8:307-314

Petersen, B. 1964. Monarch butterflies are eaten by birds. J. Lepid. Soc., Cambridge, Mass. 18:165-169

Platt, A. P., Coppinger, R. P., Brower, L. P. 1969. Demonstration of the mimetic advantage of edible butterflies presented to caged avian predators. Amer. Zool., Utica, N. Y. 9:1062

Platt, A. P., Coppinger, R. P., Brower, L. P. 1971. Demonstration of the selective advantage of mimetic Limenitis butterflies presented to caged avian predators. Evolution 25:692-701

Pliske, T. E. 1975. Attraction of Lepidoptera to plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Environmental Entomology 4:455-473

Pliske, T. E., Edgar, J. A., Culvenor, C. C. J. 1976. The chemical basis of attraction of Ithomiine butterflies to plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Journal of Chemical Ecology 2

Pough, F. H., Brower, L. P., Meck, H. R., Kessell, S. R. 1973. Theoretical investigations of automimicry: Multiple trial learning and the palatability spectrum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 70:2261-2265

Reichstein, T., Euw, J. V., Parsons, J. A., Rothschilde, M. 1968. Heart poisons in the Monach butterfly. Science (Washington) 161:861-866

Ritland, D. B. 1991. Palatability of aposematic queen butterflies (Danaus gilippus) feeding on Sarcostemma clausum (Asclepiadaceae) in Florida. Journal of Chemical Ecology 17:1593-1610 [Keywords: ecology, chemical defense, mimicry, cardenolides, cardiac glycosides, Florida]

Ritland, D. B. 1991. Revising a classic butterfly mimicry scenario: Demonstration of Mullerian mimicry between Florida viceroys (Limenitis archippus floridensis) and queen (Danaus gilippus berenice). Evolution 45:918-934 [Keywords: chemical defense, mimicry]

Ritland, D. B. In press a. Unpalatability of viceroy butterflies (Limenitis archippus) and their purported mimicry models, Florida queens (Danaus gilippus).

Ritland, D. B., Brower, L. P. 1991. The viceroy butterfly is not a batesian mimic. Nature (London) 350:497-498 [Keywords: chemical defense, mimicry]

Robertson, C. 1887. Insect relations with certain Asclepiads. Botanical Gazette (Chicago) 12:207-216, 244-250, 1 pl.

Rothschild, M. 1972. Colour and poisons in insect protection. New Scientist (London) 54:318-320

Rothschild, M. 1972. Secondary plant substances and warning colouration in insects. In Insect/plant relationships, ed. H. F. van Emden. pp. 59-83. Oxford:

Rothschild, M. 1972. Some observations on the relationship between plants, toxic insects and birds. Ann. Proc. Phytochem. Soc. 8:1-12

Rothschild, M. 1979. Mimicry, butterflies and plants. Symbolae Botanicae Upsalinses (Uppsala) 22:82-99

Rothschild, M., Alpin, R. T., Cockrum, P. A., Edgar, J. A., Fairweather, P., Lees, R. 1979. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in arctiid moths with a discussion on host plant relationships and the role of these secondary plant substances in the Arctiidae. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (London) 12:305-326

Rothschild, M., Edgar, J. A. 1978. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Senecio vulgaris sequestered and stored by Danaus plexippus. J. Zool., Lond. 186:347-349

Rothschild, M., Euw, J. V., Reichstein, T. 1972. Aristolochic acids stored by Zerynthia polyxena (Lepidoptera). Insect Biochemistry (Oxford) 2:234-243

Rothschild, M., Euw, J. V., Reichstein, T., Smith, D. A. S., Pierre, J. 1975. Cardenolide storage in Danaus chrysippus (L.) with additional notes of D. plexippus (L.). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences 190:1-31

Rothschild, M., Ford, B. 1970. Heart poisons and the Monarch. Natural History 79:36-37

Rothschild, M., Kellet, D. N. 1972. Reactions of various predators to insects storing heart poisons (cardiac glycosides) in their tissues. Journal of Entomology A 46:103-110

Rothschild, M., Marsh, N., Gardiner, B. 1978. Cardioactive substances in the Monarch butterfly and Euploea core reared on leaf-free artificial diet. Nature (London) 275:649-650

Rothschild, M., Moore, B. P., Brown, W. V. 1984. Pyrazines as warning odour components in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, and in moths of the genera Zygaena and Amata (Lepidoptera). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (London) 23:375-380

Rothschild, M., Nash, R. J., Bell, E. A. 1986. Cycasin in the endangered butterfly Eumaeus atala florida. Phytochemistry 25:1853-1854

Rothschild, M., Reichstein, T. 1976. Some problems associated with the storage of cardiac glycosides by insects. Nova Acta Leopoldina (Halle (Saale)) 7:507-550

Rothschild, M., Reichstein, T., Euw, J. V., Aplin, R., Harman, R. R. M. 1970. Toxic lepidoptera. Toxicon (Oxford) 8:293-299

Rowell-Rahier, M., Pasteels, J. M., Alonso-Mejia, A., Brower, L. P. 1995. Relative unpalatability of leaf beetles with biosynthesized or sequestered chemical defenses. Animal Behaviour 49:709-714 [Keywords: ecology, behavior, physiology, chemical defense, cardenolides, cardiac glycosides, pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides (PAs)]

Schneider, D. 1977. Plant alkaloids as pheromone precursors in Danaid butterflies. In Comportement des insects et millieu trophique: 353-356. Colloque International du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris No. 265.

Schneider, D. 1986. The strange fate of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. In Perspectives in chemoreception and behavior , ed. R. F. Chapman, E. A. Bernays, J. G. Stoffolano. pp. 123-142. New York: Springer-Verlag [Keywords: chemical defense, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, PAs]

Scudder, G. G. E., Meredith, J. 1982. The permeability of the midgut of three insects to cardiac glycosides. Journal of Insect Physiology 28:689-694

Scudder, G. G. E., Moore, L. V., Isman, M. B. 1986. Sequestration of cardenolides in Oncopeltus fasciatus: Morphological and physiological adaptations. Journal of Chemical Ecology 12:1171-1187 [Keywords: chemical defense, cardiac glycoside, secondary compounds, milkweeds, Asclepias, physiology]

Seiber, J. N., Brower, L. P., Lee, S. M., McChesney, M. M., Cheung, H. T. A., et al. 1986. Cardenolide connection between overwintering monarch butterflies from Mexico and their larval food plant, Asclepias syriaca. Journal of Chemical Ecology 12:1157-1170 [Keywords: overwintering, chemical defense, cardenolides, cardiac glycosides]

Seigler, D. S. 1981. Cyanogenic glycosides and lipids: Structural types and distribution. In Cyanide in biology, eds. B. Vennesland, E. E. Conn, C. J. Knowles, J. Westley, and F. Wissing, 133-143. London: Academic Press.

Sheppard, P. M. 1965. The Monarch butterfly and mimicry. J. Lepid. Soc., Cambridge, Mass. 19:227-230

Smith, D. A. S. 1978. Cardiac glycosides in Danaus chrysippus (L.) provide some protection against insect parasitoids. Experientia (Basel) 34

Smith, D. A. S. 1978. The effect of cardiac glycoside storage on growth rate and adult size in the butterfly D. chrysippus (L.). Experientia (Basel) 34:845-846

Smith, D. A. S. 1979. The significance of beak marks on the wings of an aposematic, distasteful and polymorphic butterfly. Nature (London) 281:215-216

Stelljes, M. E., Seiber, J. N. 1990. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in an overwintering population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in California. Journal of Chemical Ecology 16:1459-1470 [Keywords: chemical defense, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, PAs, overwintering]

Thomas, R. E. 1981. Cardiac drugs. In Burger's medicinal chemistry, Part III, ed. M. E. Wolff, 47-192. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Turner, J. R. G. 1984. Mimicry: The palatability spectrum and its consequences. Symposia of the Royal Entomological Society of London 11:141-161

Urquhart, F. A. 1957. A discussion of Batesian mimicry as applied to the Monarch and Viceroy butterflies [iv] + 27 pp., frontispiece. Toronto.

Vasconcellos-Neto, J., Lewinsohn, T. M. 1984. Discrimination and release of unpalatable butterflies by Nephila clavipes, a neotropicl orb-weaving spider. Ecological Entomology 9:337-344

Vaughan, G. L., Jungreis, A. M. 1977. Insensitivity of lepidopteran tissues to ouabain: physiological mechanisms for protection against cardiac glycosides. Journal of Insect Physiology 23:585-589 [Keywords: foraging, physiology, chemical defense, secondary compounds, cardiac glycosides, ouabain]

Vaughan, G. L., Jungreis, A. M. 1977. Physiological mechanisms for protection of Na+-K+-ATPases from cardiac glycoside inhibition in Lepidoptera. Fed. Bull., Fed. American Soc. Exp. Biol., Baltimore 36:580

Waldauer, G. P. 1988. Asynchrony between Batesian mimics and their models. American Naturalist 131 Supplement:S103-S121 [Keywords: mimicry, phenology, chemical defense]

Wink, M., Schneider, D. 1988. Carrier-mediated uptake of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in larvae of the aposematic and alkaloid-exploiting moth Creatonotos. Naturwissenschaften (Berlin) 75:524-525 [Keywords: chemical defense, physiology, cardiac glycosides, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, sequestration, storage]

Wink, M., von Nickisch-Rosenegh, E., Schneider, D. 1990. Processing of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in three moths, Syntomis mogadorensis, Syntomeida epilais and Creatomotos transiens. Symposia Biologica Hungarica 39:53-61 [Keywords: physiology, chemical defense, cardenolides, pyrrolizidine alkaloids]

Zalucki, M. P., Brower, L. P. 1992. Survival of first instar larvae of Danaus plexippus (Lepidoptera: Danainae) in relation to cardiac glycoside and latex content of Asclepias humistrata (Asclepiadaceae). Chemoecology (Stuttgart) 3:81-93 [Keywords: chemical defense, milkweed, cardiac glycosides, neonate insect behavior]

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